The shaper is generally a reciprocating type of machine tool which is intended primarily in order to produce the flat surfaces. These kinds of surfaces can be horizontal or vertical. In general terms, we can say that the shaper can produce any surface which is composed of straight line elements. The modern shapers have the capacity to generate a contoured surface.
Categories of Shapes: Shapers are categorized as per the essential features of design or the target for which they are intended.
- As per the type of mechanism for the reciprocating motion to the ram: (a) Crank (b) Geared (c) Hydraulic
- As per the position and travel of ram: (a) Horizontal (b) Vertical (c) Travelling head
- As per the cutting stroke; (a) Push (b) Draw
What is Universal Shaper: In this shaper, the table can be swiveled about an axis parallel to the ram ways along with the two movements which are provided on the table of the standard shaper as well as upper portion of the table can be tilted about a second horizontal axis perpendicular to the first axis. As soon as the work is mounted on the table, it can be adjusted in the several planes.
Concept of Tool head: The tool head of the shaper is responsible for holding the tool rigidly as well as for providing vertical and angular feed movement of the tool. In addition to this, it also allows the tool in order to have an automatic relief at the time of its return stroke as well as vertical side of the swivel base that is held on the circular seat on the ram.
This swivel base has been graduated in degrees so that the vertical side could be set perpendicular to the work surface or at any targeted angle. The vertical side that is carrying the tool starts executing down feed or angular feed movements at the time of machining vertical by rotating the down feed screw handle.
The amount of feed and depth of the cut can be adjusted with the help of micrometer dial on the top of the down feed screw. The apron can be swiveled upon the apron swivel pin left or right with respect to the vertical slide by releasing the clamping screw.